Long-term care defines a broad range of services that meet the needs of older adults with various functional limitations. These services are provided by paid, regulated providers, and include assistance with activities of daily living (dressing, bathing, toileting), instrumental activities of daily living (medication management, housework), and health maintenance tasks. Here, we report on various aspects of these long-term care service providers: their funding, their population profile, and the prevalence of morbidity in their facilities.
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Profile: Long-Term Care Service Providers in the United States
There are 58,500 long-term care service providers according to the CDC*, which serve 8,000,000 people in the United States.
Care-Receivers by Care Type:
- Adult Day Services: 3%
- Home Health: 57%
- Hospices: 15%
- Nursing Homes: 17%
- Assisted Living/Residential: 9%
Growth Projection of population over 65:
From under 5 million in 1900 to almost 90 million in 2050. The majority of long-term care users are from the over-65 population. We can thus predict a steep increase in the use of long-term care facilities over the next half-century.
Percent distribution of long-term care services providers, by ownership type (government/other, non-profit, for profit)
- Adult Day Services: 5.1%, 54.9%, 40%
- Home Health: 5.7%, 15.6%, 78.7%
- Hospice: 13.7%, 29.7%, 56.6%
- Nursing Home: 6.8%, 25.1%, 68.2%
- Residential Care Community: 1.2%, 20.4%, 78.4%
Percent distribution of age in those using long-term care services
(Age ranges: 65 & under, 65-74, 75-84, 85 & older)
- Adult Day Services: 36.5%, 19.4%, 27.2%, 16.9%
- Home Health: 17.6%, 24.6%, 32.2%, 25.5%
- Hospice: 5.5%, 16.4%, 31.3%, 46.8%
- Nursing Home: 14.9%, 14.9%, 27.9%, 42.3%
- Residential Care Community: 6.7%, 10.4%, 21.4%, 50.5%
Percent distribution of gender in those using long-term care services
- Adult Day Services, Home Health, Hospice: 60% women
- Nursing Home, Residential Care Community: 70% women
Prevalence of Morbidities
- Adult Day Services: 31.9%
- Home Health: 30.1%
- Hospice: 44.3%
- Nursing Home: 48.5%
- Residential Care Community: 39.6%
- Adult Day Services: 23.5%
- Home Health: 34.7%
- Hospice: 22.2%
- Nursing Home: 48.5%
- Residential Care Community: 24.8%
*The CDC reported on Adult Day Services and Residential Care Communities from the NSLTCP Survey, and reported on Home Health, Hospice, and Nursing Homes that provide services under Medicare or Medicaid.